- #1718954vale019 May 10, 2019 at 6:50 pm
Fascinating!! Very interesting article AND thank you for posting – you are a star, SG. ✨✨✨✨#1719486vale019 May 16, 2019 at 7:47 pm
The news a geologically important site is set to be mined by an off-shore company for animal food has shocked scientists.
The site in Middlemarch is full of 23 million-year-old fossils which offer important clues to New Zealand’s past.
The Foulden Maar is a maar-diatreme volcano located in the Strath Taieri, southeast of Middlemarch in Otago, New Zealand. Its crater was formed 23 million years ago and is filled with fossilised diatomite as well as sedimentary rock, debris ﬂows and pyroclastic rocks.
It is the only known maar of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere and is one of New Zealand’s pre-eminent fossil sites. A similar site in Germany, the Messel Pit, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995, and now only allows excavations for scientific purposes. Foulden Maar is currently under threat from a mining proposal.
Foulden Maar is named for the nearby farm of Foulden Hills, itself probably named, like many other local locations (such as Kelso, Ettrick, Roxburgh, and the nearby Nenthorn), after the town of Foulden in the Scottish Borders.
The Foulden Maar is a maar-diatreme volcano located in the Strath Taieri, southeast of Middlemarch in Otago, New Zealand Its crater was formed 23 million years ago and is filled with fossilised diatomite as well as sedimentary rock, debris ﬂows and pyroclastic rocks. The Foulden Maar is located in the Waipiata Volcanic Field, which is an eroded phreatomagmatic eruption site.
The Foulden Maar crater is approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) in diameter; its diatomaceous layer is estimated to be 200 metres (660 ft) deep. The Foulden Maar lake formed in a volcanic crater during the early Miocene, approximately 23 million years ago. It was deep and anoxic at the bottom, which precluded decomposition of plant and animal remains. The lake was hydrologically isolated, meaning that no rivers or streams disturbed the sedimentation. The thin layers of silica are composed primarily of one diatom species, Encyonema jordaniforme Krammer, that grew on submerged rocks or aquatic plants in the lake. The diatomite layers represent a detailed fossil record of about 130,000 years
Foulden Maar is one of New Zealand’s pre-eminent fossil sites, and is unique in the Southern Hemisphere for the time period it covers. Fossils were first discovered at the site by gold prospectors in the early 1870s, and were described as “polishing powder” by the geologists Frederick Wollaston Hutton and George Ulrich in 1875.
It is estimated that half of the fossilised species found at Foulden Maar are now extinct. The laminated sediments have produced very rich finds of fossil flowers, fruits, seeds, pollen and bark from plants, as well as fungi. Several new species of plants have been discovered so far, and the fossil plant genus Fouldenia is named in honour of its type locality Foulden Maar.
Fossilised freshwater fish are common. The earliest galaxiid fish fossil and the earliest known fossilised eel both come from Foulden Maar. Numerous arthropod fossils have been found at the site, among them Araneae (spiders), Plecoptera (stoneflies), Odonata (dragonflies), Isoptera (termites), Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (true flies), Coleoptera (beetles), Trichoptera (caddis flies) and Hymenoptera (wasps, ants and bees). The four arachnids found at Foulden Maar are the first arachnid fossils identified in New Zealand; previous spider specimens had been found in amber but were not identifiable. The first fossil Hymenoptera in New Zealand is an ant found at Foulden Maar.
The fossil evidence derived from pollen and spores suggests a warm temperate or sub-tropical rain forest with canopy trees, with an understorey of shrubs, ferns and on the margins pioneer species. Climatically, the area resembled modern-day south-eastern Queensland with species that no longer occur in the New Zealand flora. The lake contained small and large galaxiid fishes and eels, ducks (inferred from coprolites), and likely crocodiles as well.
Leaf fossils from the deposit have been used to link past spikes in carbon dioxide levels with melting of Antarctic ice, and the variations in the laminations of the diatomite have been studied to reveal the New Zealand climate from that time.
Fossils#1719494supergoldMemberMember since: May 9, 2009
Replies: 8952supergold May 17, 2019 at 7:32 am
Wow! That’s really interesting!
Scary to think the site has been sold to offshore interests who intend to use the relics for animal food 😥 I sincerely hope not just NZ scientists but international scientists kick up such a fuss that the site is preserved.
Thank you Val. 😀
Supergold-Wainuiomata (Wellington)#1720017kai May 22, 2019 at 4:27 pm
fabulous pics you ones Supergold Val and any others I have missed…you ones sure do the good research .
I added a new post on CA but wonder if it’s ok if I add it here too please???quoted below
While this is a different site to when we first came on board, there are still 3 or 4 threads I regularly visit when time permits .
Love all the colour now,, and the different articles presented.
Wonder though if any of you know of any Retro/op shopping blogs in NZ ,,that show day to day purchases,,(not of businesses,,, but every day shoppers ) and updates of whats coming back in and things like that.??? Not a buying and selling site just general discussion with pics
worth an ask I guess .
Take care all
Cheers From Kai
Cheers From Kai#1720022kai May 22, 2019 at 4:53 pm
Way back when? love the hair and fashions …
Cheers From Kai#1720033LoyalMemberMember since: March 1, 2010
Replies: 17013Loyal May 22, 2019 at 5:14 pm
So do I love the hair & fashions on that photo Kai, brings back memories. That would have been taken in the mid to late 60’s I would imagine. Imagine the time spent on the hair though! 😀
The cheesecloth shirts further up the page…gee I’d forgotten about those! I’m sure my late Dad had one similar to that back then too! 😆
Brought back some memories!!
Loyal - Bay of Plenty 🙂#1720047supergoldMemberMember since: May 9, 2009
Replies: 8952supergold May 22, 2019 at 7:48 pm
Wonder though if any of you know of any Retro/op shopping blogs in NZ
I don’t personally know of any sites as you have described Kai but I googled to see what was around and I think if you click on the following link, you may well find something of interest to you.
Supergold-Wainuiomata (Wellington)#1720063kai May 23, 2019 at 10:41 am
Thanks so much for the replies SG and Loyal .Will try that link SG
That hair sure wouldve taken time and looks fabulous ..
the fashions come and go, and happy we are still here to see the 2nd time around ..
Cheers From Kai#1720065kai May 23, 2019 at 10:44 am
Sorry last pic wasnt Nz just cute fashion for the wee girl and neat pic
Heres the one I wanted to post..
Cheers From Kai#1720091vale019 May 23, 2019 at 3:48 pm
Hiya, Kai – geat to see you back here again – been missin’ ya 😀 Love the old pics- bring back memories.
SG- as usual, you come up trumps- I am sure that site will be exactly what Kai is looking for 😀
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