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Tips for Earthquake Safety

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Click here to read the response from the New Zealand Earthquake Commission


We thought this may be of interest to the GrownUps Community. We don't often get catastrophic earthquakes in New Zealand, but it always helps to know what to do. And perhaps you can pass this information onto loved ones living or travelling overseas.

PLEASE NOTE: Doug Copp's tips below are based on experiences where the buildings are have collapsed during strong earthquakes. Standard emergency procedures, as issued by the the Government and Emergency Services, should be followed in most situations.

Please click here for information on how to deal with disasters in New Zealand. We encourage members to follow these instructions in the event of a disaster in New Zealand.

This article applies primarily to situations where a building is likely to collapse during a strong earthquake. In many First World countries, building standards ensure that buildings are made with a high level of structural integrity and should not collapse during an earthquake. However, in Second and Third World countires, the possibility of building collapse is much higher.


Extract from Doug Copp's article on the "Triangle of Life"

My name is Doug Copp. I am the Rescue Chief and Disaster Manager of the American Rescue Team International (ARTI). I have crawled inside 875 collapsed buildings, worked with rescue teams from 60 countries, founded rescue teams in several countries, and I am a member of many rescue teams from many countries...

I was the United Nations expert in Disaster Mitigation for two years. I have worked at every major disaster in the world since 1985, except for simultaneous disasters.

The first building I ever crawled inside of was a school in Mexico City during the 1985 earthquake. Every child was under its desk. Every child was crushed to the thickness of their bones. They could have survived by lying down next to their desks in the aisles. It was obscene, unnecessary and I wondered why the children were not in the aisles. I didn't at the time know that the children were told to hide under something.

Simply stated, when buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings falling upon the objects or furniture inside crushes these objects, leaving a space or void next to them. This space is what I call the "triangle of life".

The larger the object, the stronger, the less it will compact. The less the object compacts, the larger the void, the greater the probability that the person who is using this void for safety will not be injured. The next time you watch collapsed buildings, on television, count the "triangles" you see formed. They are everywhere. It is the most common shape, you will see, in a collapsed building.

TIPS FOR EARTHQUAKE SAFETY


1) Most everyone who simply "ducks and covers" when buildings collapse, are crushed to death. People who get under objects, like desks or cars, are crushed.

2) Cats, dogs and babies often naturally curl up in the fetal position. You should too in an earthquake... It is a natural safety/survival instinct. You can survive in a smaller void. Get next to an object, next to a sofa, next to a large bulky object that will compress slightly but leave a void next to it.

3) Wooden buildings are the safest type of construction to be in during an earthquake. Wood is flexible and moves with the force of the earthquake.  If the wooden building does collapse, large survival voids are created. Also, the wooden building has less concentrated, crushing weight. Brick buildings will break into individual bricks. Bricks will cause many injuries but less squashed bodies than concrete slabs.

4) If you are in bed during the night and an earthquake occurs, simply roll off the bed. A safe void will exist around the bed. Hotels can achieve a much greater survival rate in earthquakes, simply by posting a sign on The back of the door of every room telling occupants to lie down on the floor, next to the bottom of the bed during an earthquake.

5) If an earthquake happens and you cannot easily escape by getting out the door or window, then lie down and curl up in the fetal position next to a sofa, or large chair.

6) Most everyone who gets under a doorway when buildings collapse is killed. How? If you stand under a doorway and the doorjamb falls forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If the door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In either case, you will be killed!

7) Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different "moment of frequency" (they swing separately from the main part of the building).  The stairs and remainder of the building continuously bump into each other until structural failure of the stairs takes place. The people who get on stairs before they fail are chopped up by the stair treads - horribly mutilated. Even if the building doesn't collapse, stay away from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the building to be damaged. Even if the stairs are not collapsed by the earthquake, they may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people. They should always be checked for safety, even when the rest of the building is not damaged.

8) Get Near the Outer Walls Of Buildings Or Outside Of Them If Possible - It is much better to be near the outside of the building rather than the interior. The farther inside you are from the outside perimeter of the building the greater the probability that your escape route will be blocked.

9) People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the road above falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is exactly what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz Freeway... The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside of their vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived by getting out and sitting or lying next to their vehicles. Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get out of their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had voids 3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns fall directly across them.

10) I discovered, while crawling inside of collapsed newspaper offices and other offices with a lot of paper, that paper does not compact.  Large voids are found surrounding stacks of paper.

Spread the word and save someone's life... The entire world is experiencing natural calamities so be prepared!

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by Admin/GrownUps 3rd February 2010 Please note that this DOES NOT replace the guidelines set down by the NZ Earthquake Commission and New Zealand Government. We have a high standard of structural integrity in our buildings in NZ and our earthquakes are not usually catastrophic so it is more appropriate to follow the NZ guidelines. However in the case of building collaspe, these hints could help.
by fast.biscuit 2nd February 2010 this is probably the most practical advise I have ever heard. Thank you for the candid, easily understandable document above. I will be issuing copies to everyone I can think of including our local cafe's, dairy and restaurant in our village.
by Admin/GrownUps 2nd February 2010 In the event of an earthquake you should follow the guidelines set out by the Government and Emergency Services. However, if you are in a situation where a building is collapsing around you, you may like to consider the tips in the article.
by Phastbaque 2nd February 2010 No Purrkins what you have been toldt is probably correct. As stated at the begining of the article "Standard emergency procedures, as issued by the the Government and Emergency Services, should be followed in most situations. " A quick search of the web indicates that following the triange of life can be life threatening.
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